After the capital moved to Tokyo in the late 1800s, Kyoto citizens enthusiastically modernized the city. Many of the buildings from that era, which were inspired by Western architectural techniques, still stand today. Professor Nakajima Setsuko of Kyoto University researches modern architecture. Malian Oussouby Sacko, president of Kyoto Seika University, specializes in architecture in Japan. They discuss how the transformation and rebirth of modern architecture hold hints for the future.