About 200 people have gathered in the Philippine capital of Manila to mourn victims killed in fierce street battles between the former Imperial Japanese military and US forces in the closing days of World War Two.
The fighting began in February 1945, and continued for about a month.
The Philippine authorities estimate some 100,000 civilians were killed by Japanese military personnel or died in the fighting. Remains of the victims were buried collectively after the battles, making it harder for the survivors to identity their loved ones.
The memorial event marking the 79th anniversary took place in front of a monument in central Manila on Saturday with relatives of the victims and students in attendance.
A man who lost three family members said that many of the survivors were unable to retrieve the bodies of their loved ones as the battles continued for weeks.
A 19-year-old student said she had learned about the battle and that it must not be forgotten.
A man representing the bereaved families said that he wants people to remember what happened so that something like that would never happen again.