Britain's defense ministry says the majority of Russian military personnel in Tuesday's Victory Day parade were not from regular forces.
The ministry published on Wednesday its analysis on the annual parade in Moscow, which commemorated the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany in World War Two.
The ministry said in its intelligence update that over 8,000 personnel reportedly took part in the parade, but the majority were auxiliary, paramilitary forces and cadets from military training establishments.
The intelligence report noted that a vintage T-34 from a ceremonial unit was the sole tank on parade. It analyzed that Russian authorities likely refrained from fielding more armored vehicles to avoid domestic criticism about prioritizing parades over combat operations.
The British defense ministry expresses its view that the parade highlighted the material challenges facing Russia's military.
The Institute for the Study of War, a US think tank, published on Tuesday its Russian offensive campaign assessment that analyzed the address made by Russian President Vladimir Putin during the celebration.
The document says Putin similarly declined to use recent notable events to offer any concrete vision on how to reverse the Russian military's setbacks in Ukraine.
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy compared Putin to Adolf Hitler in his video address published on Tuesday. He said, "It is only a matter of time before the current aggressor loses, like the aggressor who lost 78 years ago."