Japan's regulators have been drawing up proposed rules to ensure that companies engaged in green-technology research and development are competitive and don't hit consumers with unfairly high prices.
The Japan Fair Trade Commission has released a draft of anti-monopoly guidelines covering joint research and development by private businesses.
An increasing number of companies are launching collaborative efforts to develop decarbonization technologies or procure raw materials with the aim of achieving net-zero carbon emissions.
But the FTC has expressed concern over the risk of anti-competitive behavior leading to price hikes and low quality.
The draft lists several possible violations of the Antimonopoly Law. One case states that a company cannot prohibit a partner from developing its own technology once the two have started working jointly on research.
The draft also warns against price-fixing among businesses aimed at recovering their joint R&D costs.
The commission plans to solicit views from business circles and others before finalizing the draft guidelines.