Shanghai Cooperation Organization explained

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization was established in 2001 on the basis of the Shanghai Five, a mechanism aimed at resolving border issues between China and former Soviet nations.

The six initial members were China, Russia and the central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. India and Pakistan officially joined in 2017, bringing the number of member states to eight.

The SCO is a framework for discussing a wide range of subjects, including security and economic cooperation.

It is set to hold a summit in Uzbekistan on Thursday and Friday. Chinese President Xi Jinping, Russian President Vladimir Putin and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi are scheduled to attend.
Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan will also reportedly take part. Iran is an observer country, and is expected to acquire full membership. Turkey, which has been acting as a mediator over the situation in Ukraine, is a dialogue partner of the organization.

There are differences among member states, including territorial disputes between India and Pakistan. Some observers are skeptical about the members' unity in responding to international issues.