Vietnam seeks to strengthen security and economic ties with Japan amid territorial disputes with China in the South China Sea.
Increased US involvement in the region is raising concerns about an escalation of tensions.
Vietnam has welcomed Japan's intention to establish a free and open Indo-Pacific region based on the rule of law and contribute to its peace and prosperity.
Hanoi intends to strengthen ties with Tokyo through defense cooperation.
Vietnam's economy has been hit hard by the coronavirus pandemic. Its growth from January through September dropped to the lowest level in 10 years.
The Vietnamese government hopes the visit by Japanese Prime Minister Suga Yoshihide will help attract more investment from Japan.
Vietnam would also like to receive more support from Japan to modernize the country's roads, railways and other infrastructure, as well as medical systems.
Japan is the largest recipient of overseas Vietnamese workers. Vietnam's leaders are expected to ask the Japanese delegation for further cooperation.