Born in London in 1951, Peter earned a degree in Japanese from the University of London's School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS). An expert on diverse forms of popular music, Peter is also a well-known TV and radio presenter. He has lived in Japan for 40 years and has a deep understanding of the language and culture.
Born in Washington D.C. in 1973, Matt's interest in Japan was kindled by robot toys in his childhood. He worked as a translator for the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office before co-founding a company that produces English versions of Japanese comics and video games. He also writes extensively about cultural trends including yokai, ninja, emoji, and more.
Mayuu Fudo is the editor-in-chief of a free magazine centered on the various charms of lighthouses. She fell in love with their beams of light flashing through the sky. Saddened by the destruction of lighthouses and abandonment of the lenses used in them, Fudo spreads awareness of their cultural value through all forms of media. Her goal is for lighthouses to continue shining over the oceans 100 years into the future.
May 1, 2018
*You will leave the NHK website.
Japan is an island country surrounded on all sides by the sea. It's also one of the world's largest economies, with goods flowing in and out of the country by ship. That means its coasts are lined with lighthouses, which play an essential role in guiding those ships to port. Or used to, to be more precise. On this edition of Japanology Plus, we shed light on both the history of Japan's lighthouses and the way technology is changing their function in the 21st century.
For the landlubbers out there, let's start with the basics: just what are lighthouses? Simply put, they are structures that house beacon lights and guide ships by letting them know their position relative to the coast. They have existed in some form since ancient times, but the modern lighthouses we know now began to be constructed around 1700. The first lighthouse fully exposed to the open sea, a wooden tower on the Eddystone Rocks in Plymouth, England, was completed in 1699, only to be swept away by a storm four years later. Japan's first lighthouse was built in 1868, exactly 150 years ago as of 2018 (more on that in a bit!).
The light emitted by lighthouses is boosted by this, a Fresnel lens.
As we learn on the program, Japan's coastline is home to roughly 3,000 lighthouses. Japan's coastline is roughly 30,000 km, meaning about one lighthouse per 10 km! In comparison, the coastline of the United States is roughly 150,000 km, and it is estimated the country currently has about 700 lighthouses. Even keeping in mind the caveats that coastline calculation can be fuzzy and that the definition of what exactly a lighthouse is might vary, it's still clear Japan's coast has a lot of light.
Of the country's 3,000 or so lighthouses, Kannon Saki Lighthouse, located at the mouth of Tokyo Bay, is of special significance. (It should be noted that the name of the lighthouse is rendered differently from the name of the cape where it is situated: Kannonzaki.) The current building on the site was built in 1925, but the original Kannon Saki was Japan's first lighthouse. Construction began in 1868, as stipulated by a treaty signed ten years prior that established Japan's trade with the West after centuries of isolation. Built with help from Western civil engineers, the original structure was destroyed by an earthquake in 1922.
Host Peter Barakan and expert guest Mayuu Fudo at Kannon Saki Lighthouse.
Peter Barakan visits Kannon Saki with expert guest Mayuu Fudo. To say Fudo is a serious lighthouse enthusiast would be putting it, well, lightly. This lighthouse lover, who got married at the site of one of these beacons, edits a free magazine about them. Its title, Todai Dodai?, is notable for Japanese learners (or anyone who's a fan of a good old pun). In Japanese, "todai" is lighthouse(s), and "do dai" is a colloquial expression meaning "Whaddya think?" Put them together and you've got the name of the magazine and a clever gag.
According to our punny expert guest, the greatness of Japanese lighthouses lies in their austerity. While lighthouses in other countries can be flashy, with playful designs and colors, Japanese ones place functionality over style. For true connoisseurs, posits Fudo, this stripped-down, functional aesthetic offers its own appeal.
Japanese lighthouses: everything you need, nothing you don't.
But while Japanese lighthouses may be the workhorses of the lighthouse world, they're finding work hard to come by. That's because ships these days rely more on technologies like GPS and radar than the visual aid of a lighthouse to guide their paths. Though not all lighthouses have been rendered obsolete yet, some are being torn down. In this technological era, what is a lighthouse fan to do?
During the program, we shine a light on some of the activities Fudo and others are involved in to help preserve these historical structures. That includes, in addition to Fudo's free magazine, short films aimed at giving lighthouses a romantic image. Other projects include a website created by the Japan Coast Guard that offers 360-degree VR tours of lighthouses around Japan. This site allows those unable to make the trip to lighthouses to tour them virtually, as well as preserves them digitally in the event they may one day be torn down.
As GPS and other technologies keep improving, the original function of lighthouses will eventually be rendered completely obsolete—but if lighthouse lovers in Japan and elsewhere have anything to do with it, they'll live on as important cultural and historical beacons for a long time to come.
Lighthouses are making the shift from navigational tools to cultural icons.
#104 Hidden Christians: Part 2
#103 Hidden Christians: Part 1
#102 Japanophiles: Thomas Bertrand
#101 Roof Tilers
#100 Soba Restaurants
#99 School Uniforms
#98 Meiji-era Advisors
#96 Japanophiles: David Stanley Hewett
#95 Onigiri: Rice Balls
#93 School Satchels
#92 School Sports Days
#91 Earthquake-resistant Architecture
#90 A Sense of the Divine
#89 Japanophiles: Jagmohan S. Chandrani
#88 Underground Shopping Streets
#87 Radio Calisthenics
#86 Yurei: Japanese Ghosts
#85 Summer Resorts
#84 Roadside Stations
#83 Japanophiles: Bruce Gutlove
#82 The Ogasawara Islands: A Turbulent History
#81 The Ogasawara Islands: A Multicultural Heritage
#80 Rice Cultivation
#78 Industrial Heritage
#77 Japanophiles: David E. Wells
#75 Deep-fried Food
#74 100 Yen Shops
#72 Miniature Culture
#71 Regional Transport Crisis
#70 Japanophiles: Bjorn Heiberg
#69 Shopping Streets
#68 Snow Removal
#67 Game Arcades
#66 New Trends in Logistics
#65 Japanophiles: Stephanie Tomiyasu
#64 The Police
#63 Ocean Fishing